THE Judiciary





The World Bank is pleased with the on-going court constructions. The Country Director of the World Bank, Diariétou Gaye observed that good progress is being made towards bringing justice closer to the people. While touring the Kigumo Law Courts, the country director was informed that the court construction is at 98% towards completion. The court is among 30 other courts being constructed/rehabilitated and are at various stages of completion. The construction/rehabilitation of the courts is supported by the World Bank whose outcome is to improve access to court and provide timely services to the public by the Judiciary. The Country Director was accompanied by Johan Mistiaen, WB Program Leader and Lead Economist, Task Team Leader for Judicial Performance Improvement Project (JPIP), Nicholas Menzies, Project Coordinator-JPIP, Nancy Kanyago amongst others. The Senior Resident Magistrate, Hon. Agnes Mwangi was at hand to receive the guests and guided them on a tour of the new facilities.




World Bank Country Director Diariétou Gaye, (left) Johan Mistiaen, WB Program Leader being welcomed to Kigumo Law Court by Hon. Agnes Mwangi. Photos by World Bank. May 2017. 





World Bank Country Director Diariétou Gaye, expresses her delight regarding the progress made on the construction of  Kigumo Law Court. Photos by World Bank. May 2017. 






Diariétou Gaye, World Bank Country Director (Second left) Johan Mistiaen, WB Program and Hon. Agnes Mwangi - SRM outside the Kigumo Law Court. Photos by World Bank. May 2017. 





Diariétou Gaye, World Bank Country Director (centre) and her delegation being shown the new court room at Kigumo Law Court. Photos by World Bank. May 2017. 






Kigumo Law Court in 1963. Photos: Kigumo Law Courts files.




Kigumo Law Court in 2016. Photos by JPIP



Kigumo Law Court in 2017. Photos by JPIP






Court construction by JPIP at different stages

The court construction works of Judiciary Law Courts are progressing on well and are at different stages towards completion. The new courts being constructed under the World Bank supported programme of Judicial Performance Improvement Project (JPIP) are expected to improve the dispensation of justice and bring quality services closer to the people. They shall have state of the art facilities including ICT Technology, spacious court rooms and registries, separate cells for men/women/juvenile, protected witness rooms, libraries, adequate chambers and offices, ramps for the physically challenged and many other facilities. In some courts, the facilities are already being occupied as other sections of the constructions are being completed. See picture presentation of the progress. [  Download PDF ]





REHABILITATION OF COURTS PROGRESSING WELL

The rehabilitation works of Engineer, Chuka and Kigumo Law Courts are progressing well with some parts of the building been partially occupied to enable court proceedings to continue uninterrupted. It is anticipated that the contractors shall complete the rehabilitation works by January 2017.

Supported by the World Bank Group under the Judicial Performance Improvement Project (JPIP), the three courts will have three levels measuring an average of about 2,300 square meters. There will be more court rooms and chambers, registries, conference facilities and lounges, separate self-contained cells for men, women and juveniles, offices for prosecutors and prison wardens, adequate space for parking for visitors and staff, ramps for the physically challenged, exhibition rooms and ICT facilities.

Other courts that are to be rehabilitated under JPIP are: Isiolo, Kaloleni, Kapenguria, Kapsabet, Kibera, Kwale, Makindu, Makueni, Maralal, Molo, Mukurwe’ini, Muhoroni, Nyamira, Nyando, Oyugis, Vihiga and Voi.

The on-going rehabilitation is being supervised by the Judiciary Directorate of Building Services (BDS) which is ensuring that the required building codes, regulations and standards are adhered to. Once complete, the courts will improve access to courts and legal information. They will contribute to the reduction of geographical distances to courts, improve links to court users and potential users and reduce knowledge barriers.





Chuka Law Court before


On-going Rehabilitation of Chuka Law Court



Judges Chamber before



Rehabilitated Judges Chambers




On-going Rehabilitation of Engineer Law Court




On-going Rehabilitation of Kigumo Law Court







 

WORLD BANK MISSION TEAM PLEASED WITH JPIP PROGRESS.

Chief Justice Willy Mutunga held discussions with Nicholas Menzies, World Bank Task Team Leader for JPIP project. The World Bank mission team which was in the country from February 1-12, 2016, was pleased with the progress being undertaken in the implementation of the project. At the meeting was the Project Coordinator Nancy Kanyago, World Bank Court Registry consultant, Nicole Ridley and the Chief of Staff Duncan Okello.

 

 

The World Bank mission team also held discussions with implementing units to get progress updates. Below the Registrar of the High Court Hon. Judy Omange gives an update on progress made on activities undertaken under JPIP. 







SAFEGUARDS ADHERED IN COURT CONSTRUCTIONS


The Judicial Performance Improvement Project (JPIP) on-going court rehabilitation and construction works are in compliance with Environmental and Social Management Plan (ESMP) safeguards. An Environmental and Social Safeguards Review Report undertaken by a World Bank Group consultant reveals that four Judiciary courts that are being rehabilitated meet the required guidelines set out by National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) and National Construction Authority (NCA).

 

The environmental and social safeguards performance review was undertaken at Chuka, Engineer, Kigumo and Molo Law Courts. The rehabilitation and construction works comprise of increasing the number of court rooms and chambers, separate holding cells for both gender and juveniles, administration offices, and other attendant court facilities.

 

The report notes that contractors have an ESMP checklist that they follow in order to comply with requisite safeguards policies. Gender inclusivity has been considered though the uptake on the side of women is low. There seems to be satisfactory adherence to occupational, health and safety standards. It was noted further that workers have been sensitized on HIV/AIDS and STDs. In situations where workers have been sourced from outside the county, sensitization sessions have been undertaken to enable them work effectively in the community. The sites have safety officers who act as first line of First Aid in cases of emergency. The report further states that there is need for continuance compliance monitoring.

 

Safeguards measures are adhered to by workers.

 

 

 Construction workers wearing safety equipment as required.









JPIP upbeat to complete construction of courts




During the year 2015, rehabilitation and construction works under the Judicial Performance Improvement Project (JPIP) continued smoothly at nine courts stations across the country.

The sites include Engineer, Chuka, Kigumo, Molo, Nyamira, Nyando, Oyugis, Tamu and Vihiga Law Courts. The court sites were handed over to contractors early in the year. The construction of the nine courts is expected to be complete in September 2016.

JPIP has already rehabilitated two court pilot projects, namely; Kangame and Kitui Law Courts. JPIP is a World Bank funded program that is meant to improve access to justice.

 

The various construction stage at some of the court stations in the country.

Masonry works being done at Chuka Law Court.

On-going rehabilitation works of Chuka Law Court

On-going rehabilitation works of Engineer Law Court

Construction Consultant supervising the construction of Kigumo Court

On-going rehabilitation works of Kigumo Law Court

The architect discussing the court design at Molo Court site meeting.

On-going rehabilitation works of Molo Law Court

On-going rehabilitation works of Nyamira Law Court

The construction architect is particular about details of the Nyamira Law Court

Men at work on Nyando Law Court

On-going rehabilitation works of Nyando Law Court

On-going rehabilitation works of Vihiga Law Court

Regular site meetings are held at court construction sites to ensure that the projects are on time, meet required standards and are professionally built.





 

JPIP builds capacity and impart knowledge and best practices in procurement

The Independent Fiduciary Agent (IFA) conducted a two day training on Procurement Procedures and Guidelines for JPIP on 5th – 6th November 2015. The training was to build capacity and impart knowledge and best practices and at the same time prepare the judicial officers in procurement for a smooth transition of procurement functions on JPIP. JPIP procurement processes was previously handled by IFA who are at the end of November 2015 will be expected to hand over the functions to Judiciary all the procurement and financial functions as envisaged in the consultant contract.


The training workshop was attended by Heads of Departments of the Judiciary, Supply Chain Management staff, Members of tender committee, Members of procurement committee, Members of evaluation, negotiations, inspection and acceptance committee, Members of disposal committees,  Staff of user departments involved in procurement related functions; and Finance & Accounting staff.



Photo moment: Participants at the procurement training pose for a group photograph.

 


 Guest Lecturer Mbungu Mbumba emphasizing a point


 

Participants following presentation by Procurement Specialist James Okello.







JPIP DELIBERATES ON IMPROVING EFFICIENCY

The Project Management Unit, Integrated Fiduciary Agent, Directorate of Building Services and seconded staff to JPIP from the Judiciary participated in a two day Strategic planning workshop to deliberate and develop strategies for improving efficiency of JPIP implementation.

 

It aimed at ensuring that the entire team understood the new focus of the project from component to outcomes towards front-line service provision.

 

The workshop also provided an opportunity for Project Management Unit (PMU), Integrated Fiduciary Agent (IFA) to share experiences, reflect on the environment in which the project operates and capitalize on its strengths in driving the project to success and also propose mitigation strategies to address the challenges.

 

The workshop used the opportunity to induct new staff of the Directorate of Building Services who are new and whose role in the project is significant.

 

Group photograph of participants at the Strategic Planning Workshop.

 

Head of IFA, John Thiong'o making his presentation.

 

 

Participants following workshop proceedings keenly

 

 

Participants following proceedings of the Strategic Planning Workshop

 






Directorate of Building Services Established

The Judiciary has established a Directorate of Building Service (DBS) which will be charged with the responsibility of designing, supervising and managing construction and renovation program for all Judiciary courts. It will also oversee repairs and maintenance of all Judiciary buildings. The newly established Directorate will be headed by a Chief Architect as its Director assisted by Construction Industry Professionals.

The Director of DBS, Architect John Okello states that “The Directorate of Building Services will be responsible for the management of Judiciary’s estates, designing of court buildings, preparing tender documents and contracts, supervising construction works, extensions, remodeling, repairs and overseeing building maintenance.”

He further stated that to overcome risks and challenges that arise from inefficiencies, the Judiciary requires to manage its own court infrastructure development. The Directorate will supervise other consultants providing Architectural Engineering, Quantity surveying, Civil/Structural Engineering, Electrical/Electronic Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Services, Landscaping, Interior Design and Environmental Impact Assessments Services in addition to providing the same services. These services shall be offered from inception through to procurement of contractor(s), supervision during implementation stage and commissioning of building facilities.

The Judiciary plans to construct 30 new High Court buildings, rehabilitate 90 magistrate courts and build over 200 new magistrate courts across the country in support of the devolution of service agenda. The Judicial Performance Improvement Project (JPIP) court infrastructure component is intended to assist in accelerating the overall construction and renovation program being funded by the Government of Kenya (GoK). The World Bank Group’s will support the construction of nine new High Court buildings, one Children’s court and the refurbishment of approximately 20 magistrates’ courts. The Judicial Service Act (2011) stipulates the need to establish High Court station in each of the 47 counties. Currently there are only 17 High Courts in 17 counties.

Court infrastructure focuses on providing ultra-modern infrastructure to enhance delivery of quality services that will contribute towards dispensation of justice and reduce lengthy distances and travel times for litigants. There is also an urgent need for court construction to keep pace with the new judicial appointments and reforms.

 


 

COURTS HANDED-OVER FOR REHABILITATION

The Judiciary through the Judicial Performance Improvement Project (JPIP) has handed over an additional two court sites to contractors to commence construction works. Nyando and Vihiga Law Courts were handed over to Philmark Systems Services Ltd and Lunao Enterprises Ltd respectively for rehabilitation works at a cost of Ksh.152million for both courts. The rehabilitation works are expected to be completed by September 2016.

In May and June this year Engineer, Tamu, Nyamira, Molo, Chuka, Kigumo and Oyugis Law Courts were handed over for rehabilitation works to the contractors. The completion of the rehabilitation of these seven courts is June –July 2016.

The rehabilitation of Judiciary courts is part of the transformation process supported under the Judicial Performance Project (JPIP) which is funded by the World Bank Group.

The contractors are expected to utilize local resources – from labour to high quality materials during the rehabilitation of the courts. The contractors who won the tenders through competitive bidding processes are to adhere to professional and legal standards in construction. NEMA and other legal requirements & regulations are to be adhered to.

The handing over of the sites was led by representatives of the Judiciary including the Chief Registrar’s office, Head of Stations, Registrar of the Magistrate Court representative, Project Coordinator of JPIP, Director of Building Service Unit, Court User Committee members, Consultants and respective contractors.
























JPIP FOCUSES ON OUTCOMES

 

The Judicial Performance Improvement Project (JPIP) will shift the orientation of the project from inputs that fill gaps in judicial administration to core outcomes that are most important to court users. The project will now focus on four outcomes (1) Increase access to courts and Legal Information; (2) Improve timelines of Judiciary Services; (3) Enhance performances and quality of decision making; and (4) Project Management. This is still in line with the Project Development Objectives (PDO) of improving the performance of the Judiciary to provide its services in a more effective and accountable manner.


During the Mid-Term Review (MTR) on 6th - 17th July 2015, it was resolved that JPIP be restructured to focus on the needs of frontline service providers that interact with court users.

The MTR provided an opportunity for the Judiciary and the World Bank to assess the relevance, efficiency and effectiveness of the design and implementation of the project. Mid-Term Reviews are common practices for all World Bank Group projects. They aim at assessing the relevance, efficacy and effectiveness of the design of the project and to gauge whether the project is on course in meeting its objective.

The aims of the outcomes are as follows: Increasing access to courts and Legal Information will aim at reducing geographical distance to courts; improve links to court users and potential users and reduce knowledge barriers. Improving timeliness of Judiciary services will aim at reducing blockages in the registries; increase efficiencies with improved facilities; and increase the speed of case resolution. Enhancing performance and quality of decision making will focus on: increasing use of standards and data in management of the Judiciary; improve consistency and clarity of decision making; and strengthen integrity in decision making. The project management aims at ensuring the project is effectively and efficiently coordinated and managed. In particular it aims to ensure effective monitoring evaluation and reporting on the implementation of the activities, communication, procurement and financial management.

The Implementing Units of JPIP have aligned their activities in the work plans based on the outcome of the MTR and in particular the four areas of outcomes and also in line with the Judiciary Transformation Framework (JTF).

 

 

 

 

 


JPIP procures vehicles to support service delivery in Judiciary

Judicial Performance Improvement Project (JPIP) has procured 13 state-of-the-art 4wheel-drive vehicles for implementing units to improve delivery of service in the Judiciary.

 

The initial nine vehicles were delivered to the Judiciary and are undergoing inspection process before distribution to respective implementing units.

 

 The vehicles are part of a consignment of the 24, the project procured to ease transport logistics by the implementing units.

 

The vehicles include saloon, heavy duty utility vehicles, a microbus and a 62 semi-luxury bus for the Judiciary Training Institute (JTI).

 

 

JPIP is supported by the World Bank Group.

 

 
 
 
IFA and Judiciary team with the newly acquired Ford Forest vehicles.
 
 
The initial nine Ford Forest vehicles at the Judiciary, procured by JPIP.
 
 
 
Head of IFA Mr. John Thiong'o leads a team from IFA and the Judiciary Transport Officer Mrs. Noelle Alubbe (right) to inspect the nine new vehicles procured by JPIP.

 

 






World Bank team meets Judiciary project implementing units




Members listen to Hon. Esther Nyaiyaki during group discussions. The World Bank supervisory mission held an intensive half day workshop for all implementing units in the Judicial Performance Improvement Project (JPIP) to assess the relevance, efficacy and effectiveness of the design of the project and to gauge whether the project is on course in meeting its objective. The outcome of the workshop is intended to assist in the preparations of a mid-term review and restructuring of the project in May 2015. The restructuring will be based on the projects objectives, activities, indicators, allocation of funds and implementing procedures of JPIP. Mid-term reviews are conducted in all World Bank Projects.


The mission team led by the World Bank Task Team Leader Nicholas Menzies, Co-Task Team Leader George Larbi and other consultants were in the country from 2nd – 10th March 2015, holding meetings with implementing units to accelerate implementation of the project in particular focusing on issues with procurement and preparation for a mid-term review.

Edna Kuria of Kenya Law makes her contribution during the World Bank Supervisory Mission workshop



Implementing Units follow proceedings at the WB Supervisory Mission workshop



Dr. Solomon Letangule chairs group discussion.




Doreen Mwirigi makes a contribution during group work.








New leader for World Bank’s Judicial Performance Improvement Project

Mr Nicholas Menzies, a Senior Counsel in the Governance Global Practice of the World Bank, is the new Task Team Leader of the Judicial Performance Improvement Project (JPIP). Menzies takes over the management of JPIP from Ms Nightingale Rukuba-Ngaiza, who has taken over other duties with the World Bank. Menzies is no stranger to JPIP, having been involved in the project since 2012, including undertaking several mission visits to JPIP. Prior to joining the World Bank, he worked on Indigenous Land and Natural Resource Governance in Australia; on Legal Empowerment and Access to Justice in Cambodia, and on Policy Reform in Papua New Guinea. George Larbi will continue to be the Co-Task Team Leader of JPIP, based in Nairobi.

JPIP is a World Bank-funded project, initiated in 2012 to improve the performance of the Judiciary, enabling it to provide services in a more effective, efficient and accountable manner.JPIP consists of four components that are anchored within Judiciary’s transformation strategy. The components are: Court Administration and Case Management; Judicial Training and Staff Development; Court Infrastructure, and Project Management. JPIP is a Management Development Project and is currently the second largest stand-alone Judiciary project in the world financed by the World Bank.




WORLD BANK MISSION TEAM PLEASED WITH PROGRESS OF KITUI LAW COURT

The World Bank supervisory mission was impressed with the progress made towards modernization of the Kitui Law Courts. The mission team led by Nicholas Menzies, World Bank Task Team Leader and the Co- Task Team Leader George Larbi were informed that the rehabilitation works to modernize the court was completed on schedule with the technical handing over done in November 2014. Following a tour of the premises the team observed that with the improved facilities court users will be provided with better quality services and access to justice by the courts. The Principal Senior Magistrate of Kitui Law Courts, Mrs. Beatrice Kimemia was grateful for the support accorded by the World Bank towards improving and modernization the court.

The World Bank supervisory mission is in the country to assess and review progress being undertaken by the Judicial Performance Improvement Project (JPIP). The World Bank supports the Judiciary through JPIP with a loan of US$120 million for a six year period to improve court administration, case management, Judiciary training and staff development, court infrastructure and project management. JPIP is in its second year and has made significant progress towards improving the performance of the Judiciary in providing services in a more effective, efficient and accountable manner.

Hon. Kimemia, Senior Principal Magistrate, guiding Mr. Menzies from World Bank through the new courts


  World Bank Team assesses newly constructed cells in Kitui Law Courts

     Rehabilitated Kitui Law Courts

  The New Hall which consists of a bank and a registry in Kitui Law Court



 

Judicial Performance Improvement Project - News and Highlights



   Chief Justice Hon. Willy Mutunga unveils the plaque inaugurating the Garissa High Court. Looking on is the Garissa Resident Judge, George Dulu (r), Chief Registrar of the Judiciary Mrs. Anne Amadi, among other dignitaries.




Chief Justice Willy Mutunga inaugurates Garissa High Court


The Judiciary shall never allow for funds meant for construction of courts to be mis-appropriated. This was said by the Chief Justice Hon. Willy Mutunga during the inauguration and handing over of the Garissa High Court.

He said efforts are being made to ensure that funds are used prudently and efficiently for the purposes they are intended.

“Court construction has faced serious challenges in the past, which we are keen to avoid. We have spent much of the year cleaning up errors in the development of infrastructure and expect that with this particular court construction being publicly handed over to the contractors, it will be completed on time and within budget.” said the Chief Justice when witnessing the handing over of the site by the Chief Registrar of the Judiciary to the consultants, M/s Skair Associates Ltd.

The Judiciary has invested heavily in modernizing courts across the country using funds from the Government of Kenya and other development partners, like the World Bank. The High Court in Garissa is among the first of the ten new High Courts to be constructed with funding from the World Bank under the Judiciary Performance Improvement Programme (JPIP). Other courts that will benefit from this funding and whose sites have been handed over to consultants are Nanyuki, Siaya and Nakuru Law courts. JPIP will also construct new High Courts in Kakamega, Olkalau, Wajir, Kajiado, Mombasa and Kabete (children’s court). All the new courts will have ultra-modern ICT facilities, electronic registries, ramps for the disabled persons, detention facilities for the different genders, incorporate witness protection rooms, children facilities, and lactating rooms for staff as well as court users plus many other features.

“We have benchmarked our court construction and rehabilitation against the best in other countries and sensitive to the requirements of the Constitution.” said the Chief Registrar of the Judiciary, Mrs. Anne Amadi. Besides the construction of the new High Courts, JPIP will rehabilitate 30 courts and conduct minor refurbishment works of 28 courts which is in line with the Governments initiative of accelerating the overall construction and renovation programme of the Judiciary.





 
Judicial Performance Improvement Project - Downloads


AWARDING OF JPIP CONTRACTS



Article 35 of the Constitution requires that every citizen has a right to access to information from the State and that any information affecting the nation shall be published and publicized. The World Bank Group guidelines on Procurement of Goods, Works and non-consulting services under Section 11(c) para 2.60, Appendix 1 paragraph 7, requires that awarding of contracts information be published. In accordance with the above-mention two clauses, the Judiciary through the Judicial Performance Improvement Project (JPIP) which is supported by the World Bank hereby publishes contracts awarded under the project.
 .JPIP Contract Credit No. 5181 - Ke  Project ID P105269    [  JPIP Contracts ]



JPIP PAD


The Judiciary in partnership with the World Bank is championing the restoration of public confidence, transparency and accountability within the Judiciary. Through the Judicial Performance Improvement Project (JPIP) the Judiciary aims at providing services in a more effective, efficient and accountable manner leading to making the Judiciary the best administrator of quality services and justice in Africa. The World Bank is funding JPIP (Project ID - P105269) at US$120 million for a period of six years as part of the World Bank's FY 10-13 Kenya Country Partnership Strategy (CPS) governance pillar and the regional strategy "Africa's future and the World Bank's Support " (2011). JPIP is the second largest standalone Judiciary project in the world financed by the World Bank. The Project Appraisal Document (PAD) details the Project Development Objectives.  [   Kenya - JPIP PAD ]



SERVICE LEVEL AGREEMENT (SLA
)


The Integrated Fiduciary Agent (IFA) unveiled the Service Level Agreement (SLA) which sets out service standards aimed at streamlining the procurement processes. The SLA is to guide all IUs, Project Management Unit (PMU) and IFA through the procurement processes and financial management cycles. It sets out timelines of how long the procurement process would take in the procurement chain. If adhered by all then it’s expected that there will be fast and efficient procurement process and payment transaction. Click here for the service charter [  Download Service Charter   ]



QUARTERLY REPORTS

The Judiciary Performance Improvement Project (JPIP) Quarterly Reports are produced every quarter to provide a status report on the implementation progress and expenditure analysis of the project. The Quarterly Report covers the status of project implementation as per the JPIP Work plan by highlighting the main features of the project. It gives a brief description of the project components showing basic data and information on key deliverable. The report provides an assessment of the activities implemented against those planned in the work plan that are to be implemented in the quarter. The quarterly reports also highlight challenges encountered, areas of concern that require immediate action, and possible solutions for addressing the challenges. The reports are also done to inform and guide project management in decision making.



2nd Quarter JPIP Progress Report - 2016-17  ]


[  1st Quarter JPIP Progress Report - 2016-17 ]

[  1st Quarter, July - September 2015 JPIP Progress Report  ]


4th Quarter April - June 2015 Progress Report  ]



3rd Quarter Jan - March 2015 Progress Report  ]


[  4th Quarter April - June 2014 Progress Report  ] 

3rd Quarter Jan. - March 2014 Progress Report  ]

[ 2nd Quarter Oct. - Dec. 2014 Pogress Report   ]

1st Quarter July - September 2013 Progress Report  ]  
 






JPIP 1st QUARTER REPORT

The JPIP 1st quarter report workshop was held on 26-27th November, 2013 at the Judiciary Training Institute, Nairobi. The workshop was organized to share a draft report on the status of implementation of JPIP for the 1st quarter of 2012/2013 Financial Year, discuss operational issues and understand roles of various implementing units. Click here to read the report [  JPIP Report 5-12-13  ]





E-Newsletters


Edition  One [  Download E-Newsletter ]

Edition  Two  [ Download E-Newsletter  ]

Edition  Three
  [ Download E-Newsletter ]

Edition  Four   [ Download E-Newsletter ]

Edition  Five Download E-Newsletter     ]

Edition  Six  [  Download E-Newsletter   ]

Edition  Seven [  Download E-Newsletter  ]  

Edition  Eight [ Download E - Newsletter  ]

Edition  09 and 10 Download E-Newsletter   ]

Edition  11 and 12  [ Download E-Newsletter   ]




 




CAUSE LIST
   downloads
SERVICE CHARTERS
see all...
FAQs
see all...
USEFUL LINKS
CONNECT WITH US
info@judiciary.go.ke
ftyy